In this classic study, Henri Parens and Leon J. Saul provide a comprehensive review of Freud's writings on the subject of dependence, drawing attention to the fact that Freud said much more about dependence than is generally recognised. The authors proceed to supplement the theory of dependence from their own perspective, drawing on the formulations of Rene Spitz and the findings of ethologists (especially in imprinting and primary socialization) in order to shed further light on the singularity of early human development. They postulate the libidinization of dependence and trace the effects of this on psychic development, and also consider the dependence continuum in dynamic and economic terms ("inner sustainment"), which reflects the equilibrium between dependency and self-reliance. Utilising Anna Freud's developmental lines and Margaret Mahler's subphases of separation and individuation, they trace the epigenesis of dependence and provide illuminating clinical examples.In both its theoretical formulations and its clinical implications, this book will be of interest to psychoanalysts, psychiatrists, and to clinicians in allied fields. The recognition of normative dependence brings pathological dependence into clearer focus, thus refining assessments of dependence in treatment and offering a more discriminating frame of reference for teaching and research. Because it focuses on normative aspects of dependence, this book will provide a fresh orientation for all students of human behavior and will undoubtedly raise many questions and stimulate further research.