The Congo Reform Association exposed gross and rampant abuses of labor and by public servants in King Leopold II of Belgium's Congo Free State, leading to the annexation of Congo by Belgium in 1908. In March, 1904, Dr. Henry Grattan Guinness (1861–1915), Edmund Dene Morel, and Roger Casement founded the Congo Reform Association. The movement was formed to aid the exploited and impoverished workforce of the Congo by drawing attention to their plight.
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The association gained the support of several famous writers such as Joseph Conrad, Anatole France, Arthur Conan Doyle, and Mark Twain who contributed with their literary production to the cause. Mark Twain wrote a political satire named "King Leopold's Soliloquy", and Arthur Conan Doyle wrote this book - The Crime of the Congo.
Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a Scottish physician and writer, most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, generally considered a milestone in the field of crime fiction, and for the Adventures of Professor Challenger. He was a prolific writer whose other works include science fiction stories, plays, romances, poetry, non-fiction and historical novels.