Defining and understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms that are relevant to women’s health has become a critical area of scientific pursuit. Until recently, very little effort has been place on defining or understanding critical differences between women and men that may be critical to the overall health of the woman. In 1990, the National Institutes of Health recognized this gap in knowledge resulting in the creation of the Office of Research on Women’s Health. One of the purposes of this office was to advance the understanding of health issues from the women’s perspective from both a basic and clinical scientific perspective. From a scientific evolution of understanding, the existence of this office is new and thus there has not been enough time for new information to integrate itself in our current scientific thought process. This book will seek to capture and disseminate our current understanding of scientific advancements relevant to women’s health and provide the information to a broad audience. The purpose of this work is to discuss recent advancements in basic science across three areas of concern for women’s health. In addition, the book will provide “translational” chapters that attempt to place the basic science work in context within our current understanding of the human. Although it is well acknowledge that gender differences exist across organ function which translates into differences in whole body function, until recently little effort has been made to define basic mechanisms within various tissues within the woman. This work will focus on recent scientific findings that are relevant to women’s health and to provide novel and relevant information to interested scientists and clinicians.